FEATURES: CAUSES, SYMPTOMS, DIAGNOSIS AND PREVENTION

Concave feet can damage the musculoskeletal system of the feet. This pathology deforms the leg structure. The patient has difficulty in standing and walking.

What are concave feet? Concave feet is a condition in which the feet have very high arches. This condition occurs at any age and can affect one or both feet.

The condition of the foot is different for each person depending on the height of the arch, the cause, and whether or not it causes pain. In children, a high arch puts extra pressure on the ball of the foot and heel when standing or walking. This condition causes pain, difficulty wearing shoes and unstable feet (prone to sprains). In other cases, concave feet can lead to severe deformities that cause the child to walk on the outside of the foot.

The causes of concave feet are varied and can be related to health problems or injury. In some cases, the cause of sunken feet is unknown or unknown.

Common symptoms The most common symptom of concave feet is a high arch, even when the person is standing still. In addition, some patients may experience symptoms such as:

Pain when walking or standing. Unsteady foot due to walking on the outside of the foot or heel tilting inward. Recurrent ankle sprains. Calluses appear on the toe, heel, or side of the foot. Curved toe (hammer toe) or clamped toe (clawed toe). Foot drop syndrome: This is a condition in which the patient cannot lift the front part of the foot, causing the toes to drag on the ground while walking.

Concave feet are often caused by a neurological disorder or some other pathology such as:

Cerebral palsy. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Vertebral fracture. Spinal tumor. Disabled. Muscular dystrophy. Stroke. In some cases, concave feet may represent a genetic structural abnormality. Accurate diagnosis is very important. Because the cause of the foot concave greatly determines the disease progression in the future. If it is due to a neurological disorder or other medical condition, the condition of the foot is likely to get worse. On the other hand, cases of concave feet that are not due to a neurological disorder usually show no change in appearance.

How do concave feet affect health? Excessively concave soles of the feet can increase pressure on the toes, heels and soles of the feet when walking or standing; loss of muscle balance, weakening of the front leg muscles; thereby causing many health problems such as:

Metatarsalgia when walking, standing a lot: This is a characteristic symptom of inflammation in the ball of the foot. Patients often have toe pain when standing or walking for a long time. (Source) Plantar fasciitis: This is an inflammation of the ligaments that connect the toes to the heel. The characteristic symptom of this disease is a sharp pain in the heel, especially when waking up. The pain subsides as the person walks more, but may persist throughout the day. Hammer toe Deformity: The deformity usually occurs in one of the three middle toes. The middle joint of the toe is curved, abnormally protruding. This condition causes pain and difficulty when the person is wearing shoes or walking. Some cases may require surgery. Clawed toe deformity: For hammer toes, the toes are raised. In claw-toe deformity, the toe is curled again. This condition adversely affects the way the patient walks and postures when moving. Ankle sprain: Excessive concavity of the foot can cause the ankle to become unstable, thereby increasing the risk of spraining at this location.

More than just a congenital and genetic condition, concave feet can occur due to abnormalities in the nervous system. Diseases that can lead to this condition include spinal degeneration, spina bifida, paralysis, latent hydrocephalus, myeloma, peripheral neuropathy, muscular dystrophy, etc.

Diagnostic method for deep concave foot deformity Parents are often the first to notice an abnormally high arch or notice symptoms such as pain or instability in their baby’s feet. Early detection of concave feet and the cause of the disease is very important in improving the effectiveness of treatment.

When diagnosing concave feet, doctors usually consider the patient’s medical and family history and perform a physical exam.

Your doctor will check your feet for high arches and other external symptoms such as calluses, hammer toes, or clawed toes. A complete foot assessment will be performed, including muscle strength testing.

The doctor will observe the patient walking and standing to better understand the mechanics of the foot. Patients may also be asked to bring their own casual shoes to the examination. Thereby, the doctor can check for any abnormalities when the patient wears shoes or not. Also, if the foot condition is related to some neurological problem, the person may be referred to a neurologist for a complete neurological examination.

If the patient has leg pain, the doctor may order diagnostic methods such as x-ray, EOS (EOS imaging), CT scan, MRI scan.

Methods to treat deep recessed feet Non-surgical treatment Mild to moderate cases of foot depression often require non-surgical treatment, specifically:

Orthotics: You may be asked to put pads in your shoes, which help your feet stay in a more favorable position. This accessory is usually available. However, to achieve the best treatment effect, each patient can order a customized pair that is suitable for themselves. Bracing: In some cases, splinting of the foot and ankle may be advised to relieve symptoms caused by a concave foot condition. Night splints: This method helps stretch the arch and calf muscles while you sleep. This is especially helpful if high arches lead to plantar fasciitis. Ice: If high arches sometimes cause pain, applying ice to the foot can help ease discomfort and improve inflammation. Apply ice to the soles of your feet for about 20 minutes, repeat every 2-3 hours. Pain relievers: Over-the-counter pain relievers such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can help reduce pain and swelling. Surgery For severe deformities, the doctor may appoint the patient to perform surgery to correct the deformity, reduce pain, increase stability, resolve leg weakness and restore foot shape. Depending on the type of deformation, the tricks will affect:

Heel bone: The patient’s heel tends to curve inward. Therefore, surgery in this position is performed to return the heel bone to its normal position. Claw toe: The doctor will perform surgery to connect tendons, fuse or remove part of the toe bone, helping to return the toe to its normal shape. After surgery, the toes will be temporarily held in place with pins. Softness: If the cause is overstretched lateral ankle muscles, your doctor may need to stretch part of the calf muscle or the Achilles tendon. Cover the joint at the joint between the ankle, the ankle joint, and the metatarsal joint.

Tendon Transfer: For this procedure, the tendon at the back of the ankle is moved to the top of the foot to improve strength and support the foot to function better. After tendon transfer, the patient is usually in a cast for about 6 weeks and wearing a support device for the next 3-6 months. Bone fusion surgery: This method is indicated in combination with procedures affecting soft tissue. The doctor will combine one or more bones to form a new joint for the patient. How to prevent concave feet? Concave feet are usually genetic or caused by a health problem. Therefore, there are currently no measures to reduce the risk of disease. However, the condition of the foot can be well controlled when the patient is monitored and treated appropriately.